human trafficking in thailand statistics 2018
Thai courts increasingly admitted advance and video testimony by victims as evidence in trials, increasing the willingness of victims to act as witnesses. The government continued to screen for trafficking indicators among fishermen returning to Thailand and on fishing vessels in Thai waters, as well as among workers in seafood processing facilities. "Thailand is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labour and sex trafficking. Human trafficking is a crime in itself but it is rarely the end goal for the perpetrators. Officials identified fewer victims of forced labor and investigated fewer forced labor cases compared to the previous reporting period. To increase efficiency in prosecuting trafficking and illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing cases, in March 2018 the attorney general issued guidelines to prosecutors with descriptions of relevant charges and sentencing recommendations. Playing next. The discovery of mass graves of trafficking victims along the border between Malaysia and Thailand in 2015 is gruesome evidence of such collusion; a Thai general and police officers were among 62 people convicted of human trafficking and other crimes connected with the case, according to news reports. On July 30, 2019, The National Human Trafficking Hotline published a summary of its 2018 statistics detailing the number of cases, the prevalence of different types of trafficking, and crucial demographics regarding trafficking. The Anti-Human Trafficking and anti Child Abuse Center (ATCC) in Pattaya, Thailand, has recently launched The Child Protection and Development Life Skill Center (CPLC) run by Mr. Ja in coordination with a national foundation called Fight Against Child Exploitation (FACE). In September 2017, the cabinet approved the Second National Policy Strategies and Measures to Prevent and Suppress Trafficking in Persons, 2017-2021. Trafficking in Persons report considered Thailand to be a Tier 2 country, meaning the report states that although the Government of Thailand does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, it is making significant efforts to do so. The main piece of legislation in Thailand relating to human trafficking is the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act, B.E. Of the 450 victims in government shelters, 287 were employed either inside or outside shelters during the course of legal proceedings. The decision by Thailand … Of all the global victims, only 118,932 were identified (up from 85,613 in 2018). human trafficking is underreported, underdetected, and thus underprosecuted. In addition, from January through March 2018, it initiated criminal investigations of 20 officials, prosecuted eight, and convicted five. Thai, Burmese, Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Indonesian men and boys are subject to forced labor on Thai and foreign-owned fishing boats. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States. 50,000. A comprehensive, more human-centered approach compels us to delve deeper into the other drivers of human trafficking, including poverty, severe exploitation, and political repression. Human trafficking is where individuals are placed or maintained in an exploitative situation for economic gain. There are reports that some brokers and employers continue to confiscate identity documents. The government demonstrated increasing efforts by prosecuting and convicting more traffickers, and decreasing prosecution time for trafficking cases through the use of specialized anti-trafficking law enforcement divisions. The statistics contained on this website are based on aggregated information learned through signals -- phone calls, texts, online chats, emails, and online tip reports -- received by the Trafficking Hotline. Human trafficking has surpassed the illegal sale of arms; Trafficking will surpass the illegal sale of drugs in the next few years; Drugs are used once and they are gone. Members of ethnic minorities, highland persons, and stateless persons in Thailand have experienced instances of abuse indicative of trafficking. Traffickers are known to enlist the help of corrupt officials in recruiting victims and moving them across borders. In addition, the RTP established a working group with the MOL to review and evaluate labor violations such as wage disputes and child labor to identify potential victims of trafficking. CCCIF, the Department of Fisheries, DLPW, and other relevant agencies developed a manual on SOPs for labor inspections to be conducted after the government reauthorizes Thai vessels to operate outside Thai waters. Prosecutors also worked with NGOs to prepare victims to provide testimony. These include the 2008 Anti Trafficking in Persons Act,  the 1997 Anti Trafficking Act,. A … It is a lucrative business estimated to generate $3–$20 billion in profit a year. The study revealed that anti - Some of these migrants are kidnapped and held for ransom, which increases their vulnerability to sexual servitude, forced labor, or debt bondage. In 2017, the government initiated investigations of 26 officials (10 in 2016), initiated prosecution of seven, and convicted 12 officials complicit in trafficking crimes (three convictions in 2016). and Thailand in 2015 is gruesome evidence of such collusion; a Thai general and police officers were among 62 people convicted of human trafficking and other crimes connected with the case, accord - ing to news reports. Credible reports indicate some corrupt officials protect brothels and other commercial sex venues from raids and inspections and collude with traffickers. Following criticisms from stakeholders, the government delayed implementation of the decree until June 2018 to seek stakeholder input on amendments of the decree, as well as to allow migrant workers more time to obtain the necessary documents for legal employment under the decree. Victims, not perpetrators, are often the ones who suffer physical abuse and prosecution for illegal migration. Following the completion of the horizontal evaluation of the National Action Plan, in Budget 2018, the Government of Canada announced $14.51 million over five years, beginning in 2018-2019, and $2.89 million per year ongoing, to establish a National Human Trafficking Hotline. Employers were also mandated to cover costs (excluding personal expenses such as passports, medical checks, and work permits) associated with bringing migrant workers to Thailand and back to their home countries when employment ends, such as recruitment fees and transportation costs. However, the government did not meet the minimum standards in several key areas. The number of victims soared from 622 in 2018, while the previous high was 982 in 2015, the government data showed. The gap between the legal framework and the enforcement of relevant laws at the national level poses problems as well. Thailand figures prominently in human traffickers' maps as a preferred destination in Southeast Asia, government data shows. Drought-affected migrants have been smuggled from Cambodia into Thailand (Calma 2017; Tesfay 2015). Report. Human trafficking is a crime in itself but it is rarely the end goal for the perpetrators. 3 years ago | 2.2K views. Children in orphanages are vulnerable to exploitation, including trafficking. Most of the victims were from Myanmar. 2018. Traffickers, including some registered and unregistered labor brokers of Thai and foreign nationalities, bring foreign victims into Thailand through both formal migration and smuggling routes and serve as intermediaries between job-seekers and employers. Browse more videos. Improve the capacity of law enforcement, labor inspectors, and first responders to consistently and proactively screen for and identify victims among vulnerable populations, including migrant workers, stateless persons, children, and refugees, and to ensure victims are not subjected to arrest, detainment, or deportations for crimes committed as a direct result of being subjected to trafficking; proactively investigate and prosecute officials allegedly complicit in trafficking, and convict and punish those found guilty with dissuasive sentences; improve the capacity of law enforcement to proactively prosecute and convict sex and labor traffickers; improve law enforcement and first responders' ability to identify and prosecute cases of forced labor, especially in cases lacking physical coercion or confinement; continue to train multidisciplinary teams and labor inspectors to improve the quality of fishing vessel inspections that could result in the identification of victims and criminal investigations; ensure government- and NGO-run shelters provide victims with adequate trauma-informed care, including legal assistance, and increase the provision of financial compensation and restitution to victims, including to those who are unable to work outside shelters; foster an environment conducive to reporting human trafficking crimes without fear of criminal prosecution and provide protections for multidisciplinary teams against interference or retaliation; regulate migrant worker labor recruiters, including by enforcing bans on worker-paid recruitment fees and by prosecuting cases with indicators of trafficking; improve migrant workers' rights, legal status, and labor migration policies to minimize the risk of trafficking; enforce regular payment of wages and the rights of employees to retain possession of their own identity and financial documents; and proactively inform migrant workers and other vulnerable populations of their rights, including under new migrant worker regulations, and legal protections from human trafficking. Migrant workers, especially those who are undocumented, are fearful of reporting trafficking crimes and cooperating with authorities due to lack of awareness of their rights and minimal protections both in Thailand and in countries of origin and a general fear of authority that may stem from their country of origin or their experience in Thailand. Traffickers also choose their victims from among the massive numbers of people displaced by armed conflict and natural disasters, who in their desperate attempt to find safety and protection are particularly vulnerable. The government took steps to decrease the demand for commercial sex acts, including by investigating and prosecuting offenders who purchased children for commercial sex acts. 2018 . Dear Fellow Ohioans, About 20 million people worldwide fall victim to human trafficking each year, according to estimates. Southeast Asia’s refugees and displaced people are victimized by human traffickers, but the crime usually goes unreported. Victims and activists may have been deterred from reporting, and some officials may have been hesitant to pursue investigations of exploitation due to risks of facing criminal defamation charges brought by unscrupulous employers. The government did not report how many of these violations had direct ties to trafficking. The plight of thousands of migrants stranded on boats in the Andaman Sea has drawn global attention to a sinister trade in people, which has thrived in south east Asia. The government increased efforts to prevent trafficking. Impact of Livelihood Recovery Initiatives on Reducing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking and Illegal Recruitment: Lessons from Typhoon Haiyan. HUMAN TRAFFICKING. The 610 sex and labor trafficking victims whom the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) reported assisting in government and NGO shelters (401 in 2018), included 134 Thai and 476 foreign victims, and 170 victims of sex trafficking and 440 victims of labor trafficking. Yet despite growing evidence that climate change increasingly drives forced migration, the link with human trafficking remains relatively unexplored. It initiated prosecutions against 287 illegal brokers (108 in 2016) under the Employment and Job-Seeker Protection Act. Trafficking in the fishing industry remains a significant concern. MSDHS increased the number of available hotline interpreters to 68 in 2017. The Ministry of the Interior and Ministry of Justice inspected 11,268 "high-risk" adult entertainment venues and ordered 268 to cease business activities for five years; these inspections led to the prosecution of eight trafficking cases. Collusion between corrupt government officials and criminal networks is another severe problem. DGMM issued its first annual report on trafficking and continued to publish annual data reports on its website for 2013-2017; however, observers reported the government did not share detailed statistics on a regular basis and OSCE reported discrepancies in the statistics of the different databases managed by various state institutions, such as the Ministry of Interior, MOJ, and courts. MOL conducted inspections onboard 644 vessels in 2017 and found 34 violations of the law (15 in 2016); three cases were prosecuted as a result. Human Trafficking, 2018, marks the sixth report from the national Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program’s Human Trafficking data collection. The government and civil society groups operated a service center for fishermen to provide information on their rights, skills training, health screenings, and other resources. Females are also victims of domestic servitude and other forms of forced labor. Following the adoption of the Beggar Control Act in 2016, the government increased efforts to investigate forced and child begging; it initiated 26 forced begging investigations in 2017, compared to eight in 2016. Traffickers have reportedly also preyed on ethnic minorities affected by internal conflicts in Myanmar. Thailand and overseas waters in the near vicinity. Opinions expressed in articles and other materials are those of the authors; they do not necessarily reflect IMF policy. In addition, the government employed 60 Burmese and Cambodian language coordinators for port-in-port-out (PIPO) inspection centers, an increase from 30 in 2016, and MOL employed 74 interpreters. The government investigated and detained several vessels operating in international waters, leading to the identification of 50 exploited workers, including 35 trafficking victims and, in one case, the arrest of a broker and crew supervisor. Corruption and official complicity in trafficking crimes continued to impede anti-trafficking efforts, and the government sometimes utilized administrative punishments against suspected complicit officials, such as suspensions or transfers to new positions, rather than subjecting them to criminal prosecutions. The country’s Karen, Shan, Akha, and Lahu women are trafficked for sexual exploitation in Thailand, while Kachin women are sold as brides in China. Protecting states’ security against human trafficking is also about helping them fight other associated crimes, including smuggling, prostitution, organ trafficking, and money laundering. The anti-money laundering office seized assets worth more than 31 million baht ($950,920) from suspected traffickers in 2017, including in cases involving forced labor on fishing vessels, compared to 784 million baht ($24 million) seized in 2016. Human Trafficking, 2018 1 . The government identified 455 victims in 2017 (824 in 2016), including 336 sex trafficking victims (335 in 2016) and 119 labor trafficking victims (489 in 2016). Official complicity continued to impede anti-trafficking efforts, and there were anecdotal reports that officials arrested, detained, and deported some potential victims for crimes committed as a direct result of being subjected to human trafficking. The government continued to allow more adult trafficking victims the ability to travel, work, and reside outside shelters as provided by Thailand's anti-trafficking law. December 21, 2018 . In October 2017, the government issued regulations to provide for government oversight of NGO shelters while making available the technical support of MSDHS and the opportunity for NGOs to apply for funds from the MSDHS anti-trafficking fund. The RTP increased the number of personnel assigned to the Thai Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force (TICAC), which investigated internet-facilitated child sex trafficking. Forced marriages of young women and girls are rampant in the Mekong region of Cambodia, China, Myanmar, and Vietnam. These migrants tend to take illicit and dangerous routes, making them easy prey for criminal networks. NGOs reported concerns over the lack of appropriate options for foreign children whose families were complicit in their trafficking or whose identities could not be established. The government completed a manual outlining standard operating procedures (SOPs) for trafficking investigations and initiated a pilot in one region in early 2018 to test the procedures; the pilot was ongoing at the end of the reporting period. MSDHS trained and registered 67 additional interpreters in 2017, bringing the total number of available interpreters to 251. MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY is associate professor and head of the Centre for Non-Traditional Security at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. The government reported investigating 302 trafficking cases (333 in 2016), initiating prosecutions against 638 suspected traffickers (493 in 2016), and convicting 466 traffickers (366 in 2016) in 2017. The 2008 anti-trafficking law, as amended, criminalized sex and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of up to 12 years imprisonment and a maximum fine of 1.2 million baht ($36,810) for offenses involving an adult victim, and up to 20 years imprisonment and 2 million baht ($61,350) for those involving a child victim. Thailand has enacted several laws against human trafficking. ART TEXTURE: ISTOCK / PHONGPHAN5922; DESIFOTO Victims, not perpetrators, are often the ones who suffer physical abuse and prosecution for illegal migration. Tesfay, Netsanet. Police utilized DNA testing to determine the relationship between child victims of forced begging and the adults accompanying them, and the government prosecuted parents from neighboring countries who brought their children to Thailand more than once to engage in begging. Refworld is the leading source of information necessary for taking quality decisions on refugee status. The Palermo Protocol divides the offense into three components: the act of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, and receipt of persons; the means—the use of force and other forms of coercion, such as abduction and deception; and the purpose—for prostitution, forced labor and slavery, and the removal of organs. However, government agencies inconsistently enforced laws related to forced begging, which may have resulted in authorities sending some potential child victims to homeless shelters rather than MSDHS trafficking shelters. Government efforts to more quickly complete trafficking prosecutions may have resulted in victims spending less time in shelters. In 2017, the government inspected 302 labor recruitment agencies that facilitated overseas and domestic employment of Thai workers and found unlawful practices in nine, resulting in license suspensions of eight agencies and the revocation of one agency's license. The government continued to operate three child advocacy centers in Chiang Mai, Pattaya, and Phuket which served as child-friendly spaces in which law enforcement, NGOs, and social workers could conduct forensic interviews of child trafficking victims. About 60% of those rescued last … A government decree required migrant worker recruitment agencies to apply for a license and pay a deposit fee applied toward a foreign worker employment fund; unregistered agencies were liable to three years imprisonment and fines up to 60,000 baht ($1,840). It conducted campaigns through newspapers, television, radio, social media, billboards, and handouts to raise public awareness throughout the country. These options may include connecting callers with emergency shelter, transportation, trauma counselors, local law enforcement, or a range of other services and support. Ambassador to Thailand Glyn T. Davies. Thailand has come under fire in recent years for its ties to human trafficking, particularly in the seafood industry. are about 300 trafficking victims in Thailand per year.3 Between 2003 and 2008, statistics show that around 130 people from Thailand’s hilltribe have been rescued from human traffickers.4 A survey conducted by the International Organisation for Largest Global Criminal Activities 1. The Ministry of Labor (MOL) drafted legislation to more clearly define forced labor in Thai law and create additional protections for victims; in 2018 the government sought input from the public on this draft law. However, the government did not report whether any of these inspections resulted in the identification of trafficking victims, and NGO observers asserted both at-port and at-sea inspections conducted by multidisciplinary teams of the CCCIF were conducted too quickly, in front of ship captains or in open settings, with inconsistent methods in different ports, or by interpretors without the presence of labor inspectors; and in some cases, inspections consisted only of a review of documents or inspectors did not board vessels or speak to crewmembers. The Department of Labor Protection and Welfare (DLPW) organized training for 335 law enforcement officers on forced labor, emphasizing non-physical indicators of trafficking. Victims are often trafficked into Thailand through established migration routes from neighbouring states with significantly lower levels of socio-economic development. Human trafficking is a complex phenomenon fueled by the tremendous growth in the global sex market. In June 2017, the government issued a royal ordinance concerning management of foreign worker employment, which required additional registration requirements for migrant workers and their employers, and strengthened penalties for employers of undocumented workers. Thailand is recognized as a key destination for human trafficking in the Mekong region, in addition to being a source and transit country for forced labour and sex trafficking. More than 85 percent of victims were trafficked from within the region, according to the Most of the literature on modern-day slavery focuses on women and children as victims of the sex industry. The government provided 4.3 million baht ($130,670) for witness protection services for 52 witnesses in trafficking cases in 2017, compared to 2.9 million baht ($88,960) for 254 witnesses in 2016. Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU Final report - 2018 Lancaster University China, Japan, Malaysia, and Thailand are destinations from neighboring countries. These two charts show the human trafficking arrest and conviction totals reported by each agency, from 2016 - 2018. Some officials failed to recognize non-physical indicators of trafficking, such as non-payment of wages and document confiscation. 46:35. The core of the anti-trafficking regimes is protection of borders by controlling the flow of illegal migration. ANNUAL REPORT. The government's criminal defamation laws allowed companies to pursue criminal charges against potential victims during the reporting period; additionally, labor inspectors could be held personally liable for claims of abuse of power, which could be misused and limit their ability or willingness to perform their work. Thailand rescued a record 1,807 victims of human trafficking last year, according to data that campaigners on Monday said raised concerns about the nation’s ability to support survivors. The late 1700s to the 1850s witnessed an influx in the number of Chinese labor workers and sex workers coming to Thailand. The Government of Thailand does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Article 11 of the Palermo Protocol, for example, requires states to strengthen border controls to prevent and detect trafficking in persons, and to enact legislation to prevent commercial carriers from being used for trafficking. With the transnational nature of human trafficking, both international and regional regimes encourage governments to share information, coordinate policies and efforts to criminalize trafficking offenses, provide mutual legal assistance, protect victims, and prosecute offenders. 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