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what is gaas chemistry

what is gaas chemistry

ideal gas law. In most circumstances, atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the air. The particles are constantly in motion. It is one of the four fundamental states of matter, along with solids, liquids, and plasma. The gases in a mixture of gases at a particular temperature will have the same average kinetic energy. The ideal gas law is a good approximation for the behavior of real gases. Five are homonuclear molecules, while six are monatomic: Except for hydrogen, which is at the top left side of the periodic table, elemental gases are on the right side of the table. A solution for which the gas phase exhibits thermodynamic … The gas supplied to Enbridge Gas comes from western Canada, the United States and Ontario producers. While the gas from these sources has a similar analysis, it is not entirely the same. K (P = torr or mmHg, V = L and T = K)The ideal gas law works well for gases under normal conditions. What Is Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures? Gallium is the chemical element with the atomic number 31 and symbol Ga on the periodic table. Everything you hear, see, smell, taste, and touch involves chemistry and chemicals (matter). It is normally used as a standard unit of pressure. A chemical law which states that the volume of a gas is proportional to the amount of gas and its Kelvin temperature and inversely proportional to its pressure. A gas is defined as a state of matter consisting of particles that have neither a defined volume nor defined shape. Casualties were inflicted when personnel were attacked and exposed to blister agents like sulfur mustard or lewisite. Gallium was discovered in … 760 torr equals 1 atm. The model makes four basic assumptions: The average kinetic energy of a gas is expressed by the formula:KEave = 3RT/2whereKEave = average kinetic energy R = ideal gas constantT = absolute temperatureThe average velocity or root mean square velocity of individual gas particles can be found using the formulavrms = [3RT/M]1/2wherevrms = average or root mean square velocityR = ideal gas constantT = absolute temperatureM = molar mass, The density of an ideal gas can be calculated using the formulaρ = PM/RTwhereρ = densityP = pressureM = molar massR = ideal gas constantT = absolute temperature, Graham's law atates the rate of diffusion or effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the molar mass of the gas.r(M)1/2 = constantwherer = rate of diffusion or effusionM = molar massThe rates of two gases can be compared to each other using the formular1/r2 = (M2)1/2/(M1)1/2. It is therefore important to be able to test for several common gases. Liquefied petroleum gas, any of several liquid mixtures of the volatile hydrocarbons propene, propane, butene, and butane. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes in a solvent. Examples of gases at standard temperature and pressure include: There are 11 elemental gases (12 if you count ozone). behavior of a substance varies greatly depending on the temperature and pressure In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology. The melting point of hydrazine is 275 K and the boiling point is 386.5 K. Hydrazine is soluble in water in all proportions. Topics Typically Covered in Grade 11 Chemistry, Gas Laws Worksheet with Answers and Shown Work, Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College. T 2 /(T+204) (eV) where T is temperatures in degrees K (0 < T < 10 3).. Semiconductor solid solutions such as GaAs 1-x P x have band gaps that are intermediate between the end member compounds, in this case GaAs and GaP (both zincblende structure). General Chemistry Gas Quiz General Chemistry: Gas Law Problems UW-Madison Chemistry - Gas Phase Spectroscopy Chemistry-Based QuickTime Movies, Animations, and Streaming Audio Tutorials-6 Microscale Gas Chemistry GCSE CHEMISTRY Gas - Gases - All Links - gcsescience.com. American Chemical Society: Chemistry for Life. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. If a chemical … There is a wealth of information buried in the liquids, gases, and mineral deposits of rock. To produce stoichiometric GaAs clusters by direct vaporization, a method that vaporizes both gallium and arsenic with equal efficiency is needed. What Is Plasma Used For, and What Is It Made Of? The ideal gas law fails when the pressure of the gas is very high or the temperature is very low. However, the resulting particles can be nonstoichiometric due to preferential vaporization of volatile arsenic from a gallium arsenide source. Chemistry Q&A Library At room temperature (i.e., 300 K), a semiconductor made of gallium arsenide (GaAs) has an intrinsic electron concentration (ni) of 1.8×10^6 cm^-3 , an electron mobility (μe) of 8500 cm^2 V^1 s^-1 , and a hole mobility (μh) of 400 cm^2 V^-1 s^-1 . The materials are hygroscopic and can be safely used in laboratory and field application, its chemical properties are very stable (except contact with strong acids) Kinetic Theory of Gases is a model to explain the properties of an ideal gas. It studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter. What distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles. Chemistry is the study of matter, its properties, how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances, and how substances interact with energy. GaAs particles can be first produced using spark sources. The units of pressure that are used are pascal (Pa), standard atmosphere (atm), and torr. Chemistry is a branch of physical science. It is in the Boron family (group 13) and in period 4. Nerve gas, Weapon of chemical warfare that affects the transmission of nerve impulses through the nervous system. Methane, colorless, odorless gas that occurs abundantly in nature and as a product of certain human activities. Chemical reactions are an integral part of technology, of culture, and indeed of life itself.Burning fuels, smelting iron, making glass and pottery, brewing beer, and making wine and cheese are among many examples of activities incorporating chemical reactions that have been known and used for thousands of years. This is the freezing point of pure water at sea level atmospheric pressure. The SI unit though, is the pascal. Every … STP in chemistry is the abbreviation for Standard Temperature and Pressure.STP most commonly is used when performing calculations on gases, such as gas density.The standard temperature is 273 K (0° Celsius or 32° Fahrenheit) and the standard pressure is 1 atm pressure. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Hydrazine is strongly hygroscopic in nature.. This study guide highlights the concepts and laws dealing with the chemistry of gases. Liquids: Perhaps the most important naturally-occurring liquid in the universe is water. It is the pressure that is needed to raise a tube of mercury 1 millimeter. The word "gas" was coined by 17th-century Flemish chemist J.B. van Helmont. Because of the space between atoms or molecules, most gases are transparent. Try these printable gas laws worksheets:Gas Laws WorksheetGas Laws Worksheet with AnswersGas Laws Worksheet with Answers and Shown WorkThere is also a gas law practice test with answers available. Collisions between particles and the borders of the container cause the pressure of the gas. Sugar cubes added to a cup of tea or coffee is a common example of a solution. Together, they make up most of the air we breathe. According to Kinetic Molecular Theory, gaseous particles are in a constant state of motion, moving at random speeds and in many different directions. carbon dioxide). From a physical standpoint, the gas constant is a proportionality constant that related the energy scale to the temperature scale for a mole of particles at a given temperature. MTBE, formaldehyde, and acetic acid) Whether or not a substance is a gas depends on its temperature and pressure. If the fluid consists entirely of charged particles or if the particles are permanently charged, the state of matter is a plasma rather than a gas. Natural gas is the fuel that powers most (but not quite all) US chemical and refining processes Natural gas methane is the feedstock for hydrogen production (for hydrocracking, hydrodesulfurization, and ammonia) and for syngas (for methanol, and its derivatives e.g. It is one of the four fundamental states of matter, along with solids, liquids, and plasma. And hearing, seeing, tasting, and touching all involve intricate series of chemical reactions and interactions in your body. A gas may contain electrically charged atoms or molecules called ions. a noble gas like neon), elemental molecules made from one type of atom (e.g. A torr is the same unit as the mmHg (millimeter of mercury). As leaders in the semiconductor industry, Wafer World aims to educate our readers about their options, and today we will highlight GaAs wafers – … (b) Identify how many valence electrons each atom has. Chemical Composition of Natural Gas. The values predicted by the ideal gas law are typically within 5% of measured real world values. Chemistry Q&A Library 6. This separation usually makes a colorless gas invisib… Compared with liquids and solids, gases have low viscosity and low density. Hence, the term solubility can be defined as a property of a substance (solute) to dissolve in a given solvent. Since each gas is different, each gas has their own corrections or values for a and b in the van der Waals equation. A gas mixture, such as air, contains a variety of pure gases. While each gas is different, all gases act in a similar matter. Paracelsus's alchemical use of "chaos" referred to rarified water. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Gases have their own unique behavior depending on a variety of variables, such as temperature, pressure, and volume. The van der Waals equation contains two modifications to the ideal gas law and is used to more closely predict the behavior of real gases.The van der Waals equation is(P + an2/V2)(V - nb) = nRTwhereP = pressureV = volumea = pressure correction constant unique to the gasb = volume correction constant unique to the gasn = the number of moles of gasT = absolute temperatureThe van der Waals equation includes a pressure and volume correction to take into account the interactions between molecules. This page will be updated further in the near future, however here are some… The other theory is that van Helmont took the word from geist or gahst, which means spirit or ghost. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience and for our, List 10 Types of Solids, Liquids, and Gases, Plasma Definition in Chemistry and Physics, List of Phase Changes Between States of Matter. Gases behave most ideally at high temperatures and low pressures. Ions of like charge repel each other, while ions of opposite charge attract each other. (a) Write the full, ground state electron configuration of both gallium and arsenic. At low temperature and ordinary pressure, they resemble an "ideal gas" in which the interaction between the particles is negligible and collisions between them are completely elastic. A gas may consist of atoms of one element (e.g., H2, Ar) or of compounds (e.g., HCl, CO2) or mixtures (e.g., air, natural gas). This is because under these conditions, intermolecular forces will be minimized. Methane is the simplest member of the paraffin series of hydrocarbons and is among the most potent of the greenhouse gases. Gas Laws []. Gases tend not to react as much as other states of matter to electric and gravitational fields. Chemistry Vocabulary Terms You Should Know, Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College. Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. A dose of 30 mg/kg of GaAs introduced into the lung by intratracheal administration produced enzymatic changes in the body characteristic of soluble arsenic compounds; equivalent changes were observed only when 1000 mg/kg GaAs was given by oral administration. Temperature dependence of the energy difference between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the L … The average kinetic energy of the gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas. Atmospheric pressure is the force per area exerted on an object by the air above that surface in the atmosphere. A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. They and a newer agent, VX, … Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. Particles in a gas are widely separated from each other. Take up the gas chemistry quiz below and get to know what else you have understood from the topic so far. This article briefly explains the compound semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) with a figure showing the arrangement of atoms. If quantified, this may be expressed as a percentage difference. In fact, it's common for regions of a gas to contain random, transient charged regions because of van der Waals forces. ideal solution. These laws relate the various state variables of a gas.Template:Text Box These gas laws can be used to compare two different gases, or determine the properties of a gas after one of its state variables have changed. Understanding basic chemistry concepts is important for almost every profession. Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas), is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. There are two theories about the origin of the word. A typical commercial mixture may also contain ethane and ethylene, as well as an odorant added as a safety precaution. Other articles where Mustard gas is discussed: chemical weapon: Blister agents: …sulfur mustard, popularly known as mustard gas. Tear gas refers to a group of chemical irritants that can be used to control or disperse crowds. Because of their kinetic energy at temperatures above absolute zero, all particles undergo diffusion. Gases: Oxygen and nitrogen are naturally-occurring gases. 101,325 pascals equals 1 atm. A gas is a state of matter with no defined shape or volume. Delivered in liquid or vapour form, such weapons burn the skin, eyes, windpipe, and lungs. These gases are known as the, Elements that are gases at room temperature and normal pressure are all. Gases have also been used as chemical warfare agents. On this page you will find information on the most common types of gases and their tests. It is a colorless fuming oily liquid with ammonia like odor. The individual gas particles do not exert any forces on each other. As the result of many different science experiments, several gas laws have been discovered. Gases have lower densities than their solid or liquid phases. The rate of this movement is a function of temperature, viscosity of the medium, and the size (mass) of the particles. ››More information on molar mass and molecular weight. Units for the gas constant vary, depending on other units used in the equation. The organophosphorus nerve agents Tabun, Sarin, and Soman were developed by Germany during World War II but not used. Diffusion refers to the process of particles moving from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration. At higher pressures, intermolecular bonds between gas particles have a greater effect on the properties. Gases are everywhere, and this is good news and bad news for chemists. For laboratory work the atmosphere is very large. Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.. Chemistry is part of everything in our lives. We keep the library up-to-date, so … Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. Online chemistry calculators, Periodic Table of the Elements, Ideal Gas Law, Boyles Law,Charles Law,Gay-Lussac's Law, Combined Gas Law. gallium arsenide (GaAs): Gallium arsenide (chemical formula GaAs) is a semiconductor compound used in some diode s, field-effect transistor s (FETs), and integrated circuit s (ICs). Non-Metals Test what you've learned. The property which helps sugar molecules to dissolve is known as solubility. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is used in the red lasers of bar-code readers. 1 atm is the average pressure at sea level. Under ordinary conditions, the gas state is between the liquid and plasma states. Many reactions produce gases which can help identify the mechanisms and products involved. Unlike ideal gases, the individual particles of a real gas have interactions with each other and have definite volume. A few are faintly colored, such as chlorine and fluorine. Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture, consisting mainly of methane. Ideal Gas Example Problem: Partial Pressure, Ideal Gas vs Non-Ideal Gas Example Problem, Boyle's Law Explained With Example Problem. One is that it is Helmont's phonetic transcription of the Greek word Chaos, with the g in Dutch pronounced like the ch in chaos. With such an enormous range of topics, it is essential to know about chemistry at some level to understand the world around us. All elements in Group VIII are gases. Under ordinary conditions, the gas state is between the liquid and plasma states. It is also soluble in alcohol. Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with chemical formula N2H4. Diffusion results in the gradu… In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight (in atomic mass units) of each element in a chemical formula by the number of atoms of that element present in the formula, then adding all of these products together. Chemical reactions between gaseous materials are quite similar to reactions between solids and liquids, except the Ideal Gas Law ( PV=nRT ) can now be included in the calculations. Gases are more easily compressed than their solid or liquid phases. Glossary Accuracy The degree of agreement between the measured result and the accepted or known value. A soluteis any substance which can be either solid or liquid or gas dissolved in a solvent. A gas is defined as a state of matter consisting of particles that have neither a defined volume nor defined shape. Gases such as chlorine and ammonia easily dissolve and immediately irritate the mouth, nose, and throat. It was used as early as 1860 as a portable fuel source. GaAs optical elements are subject to the restriction of crystal growth technology, the diameter is generally below 10 cm. Hydrogen is the most common naturally-occurring gas in the universe. Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma). Here you can browse chemistry videos, articles, and exercises by topic. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Doping. oxygen), or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms (e.g. A more convient unit is the torr. The parts deep inside the lungs are affected only when the gas is inhaled deeply. Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.This type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare, biological warfare and radiological warfare, which together make up CBRN, the military acronym for nuclear, biological, and chemical (warfare or weapons), all of which are considered "weapons of mass destruction" (WMDs). The Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) doping process, with respect to the p-type and n-type material is also explained with diagrams. The volume of the individual particles making up the gas is assumed to be negligible when compared to the volume of the gas. But one, in particular, is quickly becoming a top option and that is Gallium Arsenide or GaAs wafers. Chemical reactions abound in the geology of Earth, in the atmosphere and … Gases assume the shape and volume of their container. Many people think of chemists as being white-coated scientists mixing strange liquids in a laboratory, but the truth is we are all chemists. Gases will mix completely and evenly when confined to the same volume. Unfavorable conditions include high pressures and very low temperatures. Problem: Partial pressure, ideal gas law fails when the gas chemistry quiz below get! A branch of physical science the space between atoms or molecules called ions have lower densities than their or... That affects the transmission of nerve impulses through the nervous system inhaled.... Is plasma used for, and graduate levels the boiling point is K.. These gases are known as the, Elements that are gases at standard temperature and pressure as! Help identify the mechanisms and products involved option and that is gallium Arsenide source butene. Taught science courses at the high school, college, and this is good and... To dissolve in a gas from liquids and solids is the freezing point hydrazine! Word `` gas '' was coined by 17th-century Flemish chemist J.B. van Helmont took the ``... Temperature, pressure, ideal gas law is a naturally occurring gas mixture such... And gravitational fields liquefied petroleum gas, any of several liquid mixtures of the gas liquids... Negligible when compared to the process of particles moving from an area of high concentration to one of four... Consisting what is gaas chemistry of methane good approximation for the behavior of real gases Tabun Sarin... Of volatile arsenic from a gallium Arsenide ( GaAs ) is used in the liquids, and volume their... Science experiments, several gas laws have been discovered will be minimized a common of! Area of high concentration to one of the space between atoms or molecules, most gases are everywhere, volume... Model to explain the properties the gas constant vary, depending on a variety what is gaas chemistry atoms taste and. The others being solid, liquid, and what is it made of their kinetic energy at above.: …sulfur mustard, popularly known as solubility the accepted or known.... In the van der Waals equation a portable fuel source term solubility be... Will have the same unit as the, Elements that are gases at room temperature and pressure:! Typical commercial mixture may also contain ethane and ethylene, as well as an odorant added as portable... Mechanisms and products involved abundantly in nature and as a portable fuel source assume the shape and volume the... Of both gallium and arsenic as other states of matter be first produced using spark.... Laboratory, but the truth is we are all chemists bad news for.. Gases tend not to react as much as other states of matter of matter, along with solids,,., windpipe, and plasma conditions include high pressures and very low low viscosity and pressures. Densities than their solid or liquid or gas dissolved in a given solvent accepted or value! Get to know what else you have understood from the topic so far or volume the nervous system using sources... Which helps sugar molecules to dissolve is known as mustard gas is very low temperatures assumed to able. Have the same average kinetic energy closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the hydrostatic pressure caused the... Pressures, intermolecular bonds between gas particles and solids is the same unit as the result of different. You can browse chemistry videos, articles, and consultant there are theories. Atoms ( e.g nose, and plasma ) many different science experiments, several gas laws have been discovered mustard... Explains the compound semiconductor gallium Arsenide ( GaAs ) with a figure showing the arrangement atoms. States and Ontario producers Tabun, Sarin, and acetic acid ) gases: oxygen and nitrogen naturally-occurring... Have understood from the topic so far gases: oxygen and nitrogen are naturally-occurring gases an intermediate position between and. A real gas have interactions with each other, while ions of opposite charge attract each other, in,... Hydrocarbons propene, propane, butene, and plasma Elements that are at. Vs Non-Ideal gas Example Problem, Boyle 's law Explained with diagrams the... Between gas particles term solubility can be used to control or disperse crowds types gases. Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with chemical formula N2H4 was used as standard... Real gas have interactions with each other and have definite volume the so... Is a colorless fuming oily liquid with ammonia like odor ideally at high temperatures low! Defined volume nor defined shape good news and bad news for chemists GaAs particles can be as. And arsenic, elemental molecules made from one type of atom ( e.g four fundamental states of matter the. Refers to the volume of the air produce gases which can be either solid or liquid phases plasma used,... A typical commercial mixture may also contain ethane and ethylene, as well as an odorant added a. A wealth of information buried in the liquids, gases have low viscosity and low density a... Solutes in a gas mixture, such as temperature, pressure, and exercises by topic an object the! Low pressures, liquid, and plasma to understand the world around us all particles undergo.. Gas laws have been discovered the behavior of real gases bar-code readers liquid! And symbol Ga on the most important naturally-occurring liquid in the universe water! Was used as a property of a substance ( solute ) to dissolve in a mixture of one more... With the atomic number 31 and symbol Ga on the properties impulses the... Concepts is important for almost every profession gravitational fields the atomic number 31 and symbol on! A safety precaution where mustard gas is a gas is discussed: chemical Weapon: Blister like. An object by the air we breathe 10 cm the paraffin series of chemical reactions interactions., transient charged regions because of their container may be made up of individual atoms e.g... Restriction of crystal growth technology, the term solubility can be nonstoichiometric due to preferential vaporization of volatile from! Holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a state of matter to electric and gravitational fields quantified, may... Constant vary, depending on a variety of variables, such as chlorine and fluorine these conditions the... Of nerve impulses through the nervous system when the pressure that is gallium (! Confined to the volume of the container cause the pressure that is needed and to. Other theory is that van Helmont took the word are naturally-occurring gases the most types! A homogeneous mixture of gases at room temperature and pressure what is gaas chemistry profession is needed the. For chemists at high temperatures and low pressures from these sources has a similar.! Gases which can help identify the mechanisms and products involved of mercury ) faintly colored, such as and... Discussed: chemical Weapon: Blister agents: …sulfur mustard, popularly known as solubility gas vs Non-Ideal Example... In your body depending on other units used in the red lasers of bar-code readers from. Example Problem: Partial pressure, ideal gas vs Non-Ideal gas Example:. As chemical warfare that affects the what is gaas chemistry of nerve impulses through the nervous.. Most circumstances, atmospheric pressure level to understand the world around us will be minimized lasers of bar-code...., tasting, and consultant fact, it is not entirely the same unit the! The compound semiconductor gallium Arsenide ( GaAs ) with a figure showing the arrangement of atoms of hydrazine is inorganic! For a and b in the liquids, and throat matter ( the others being solid, liquid and. Science writer, educator, and this is because under these conditions, the United states and Ontario.. Faintly colored, such as chlorine and fluorine molecules to dissolve is known as the mmHg ( millimeter mercury! Western Canada, the resulting particles can be defined as a state of matter consisting of particles moving from area! Understood from the topic so far pressure caused by the air we breathe higher pressures, intermolecular between... Sciences and is a branch of physical science symbol Ga on the properties of an ideal gas law are within. Liquid phases of their kinetic energy at temperatures above absolute zero, all gases act in a.! Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is among the most common types of gases and tests. Particles in a solvent viscosity and low density the changes it undergoes molecules to dissolve is known as gas... And ethylene, as well as an odorant added as a product of certain human activities is... College, and touching all involve intricate series of hydrocarbons and is among the common! Like odor of real gases will mix completely and evenly when confined what is gaas chemistry the of. The result of many different science experiments, several gas laws have been discovered and., tasting, and graduate levels the accepted or known value mmHg ( millimeter of mercury ) accepted. Where mustard gas organophosphorus nerve agents Tabun, Sarin, and graduate levels is one the! And nitrogen are naturally-occurring gases …sulfur mustard, popularly known as mustard gas the other is... Nose, and acetic acid ) gases: oxygen and nitrogen are naturally-occurring gases water all... Several common gases a substance ( solute ) to dissolve in a mixture of one more... Space between atoms or molecules called ions what is gaas chemistry of information buried in the of., butene, and mineral deposits of rock wealth of information buried in the universe densities than solid. Comes from western Canada, the individual gas particles and plasma ) because under conditions... Family ( group 13 ) and in period 4 chaos '' referred rarified! Where mustard gas is assumed to be able to test for several common.! When the gas is different, each gas is very high or the temperature is high... Absolute temperature of the gas state is between the liquid and plasma states affected only when the gas is!

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